Agile 101: Principles for better software engineering

Discover Agile methodology's core principles and how they revolutionize software development for efficiency and innovation.

Agile 101: Principles for better software engineering

Agile has become a game-changing approach for project management in various industries, particularly software development. The methodology empowers software engineers to adapt quickly, respond to changing requirements, and deliver innovative solutions that meet customer needs. Embracing Agile principles not only enhances the efficiency and speed of software development but also enables engineers to create groundbreaking solutions that shape the digital world we live in.

In this article, we'll delve into the Agile methodology, unveiling its core principles and how they lay the foundation for more efficient and effective software development.

What is an Agile manifesto?

Software developers Ken Schwaber and Jeff Sutherland, during the spring of 2000, came together with 15 other colleagues to discuss how they could reduce the time and speed up the process of developing software. And thus, Agile was introduced. Ken and Jeff are the founding fathers of the Agile methodology. Since then, the method has undergone proper refining to bring out the process in which this methodology will be applicable.

The Agile methodology is a set of values and principles on how to work together to achieve the result, i.e., the developed software. To stay agile or to be able to move quickly and easily, these values and principles of the Agile methodology are to be followed. The vital agenda of the Agile manifesto is to uncover better ways of software development and, by doing so, help others achieve through better ways.

Even with the development of the new manifesto, the previously focused values of other methodologies remain essential. Nevertheless, these values are more critical than those from different methods.

The Agile Manifesto states that:

  • Individuals and interactions over processes and tools
  • Working software over comprehensive documentation
  • Customer collaboration over contract negotiation
  • Responding to change by following a plan

The purpose of these values is to apply them while making a decision and ensure the process goes smoothly.

The 12 principles of Agile

The Agile methodology promotes 12 principles and values that help in the adequate progress of software development. These principles ensure that both the customers and the business remain satisfied and have a smooth follow-up of the development process. They also make the life of a software engineer much more accessible, considering the uncomplex method of development that is followed. This principle motivates software developers to function in a comfortable pattern to achieve their goals and enable them to stick to the time.

The 12 principles that Agile promotes are:

  1. It is of paramount importance to deliver software early and continuously to satisfy the customer.

    One of the Agile teams' priorities is to understand customers' changing expectations. An Agile approach emphasizes continuous feedback and improvement instead of having a linear structure that engages customers only at the beginning and end.

    Instead of focusing on a rigid plan, agile teams focus on iterations and customer feedback instead. This allows the team to focus only on valuable features and align the product with customer expectations.
  2. Change is welcome even at later stages of development. By harnessing change, agile processes help customers gain a competitive advantage and satisfy their needs.

    Adaptability is one of the main characteristics of Agile projects. Even when the project is advanced, teams must be willing to make changes to remain competitive.

    The most reliable way to make a successful product is to make a solid plan and stick to it. Agile, on the other hand, works the other way around. To gain a competitive edge, teams must be able to accept change.

    Agile teams embrace change and constantly rethink their strategies and processes as part of their continuous improvement process.
  3. Since the timeframe is shorter, provide working software frequently between a couple of weeks and a couple of months.

    Feedback from clients and stakeholders is crucial for Agile. Agile delivers work regularly instead of waiting to build a final product. The Agile process works with short-term goals and tasks called sprints.

    Customers can see how the product is developing, and the team can evaluate if improvements are needed. Smaller goals will contribute to the overall product. While adapting and changing the product until it fulfills customer expectations, teams understand their specific goals.
  4. It is imperative that business people work alongside developers every day throughout the project.

    The fourth Agile principle emphasizes unifying departments through regular collaboration. Customers, key stakeholders, and leadership work with developers to strengthen communication channels. In developing a product, business and tech teams work together consistently, building trust and transparency. Developers can also get immediate feedback on new requirements or details about existing ones.

    In the long run, having everyone involved throughout the process is more beneficial because it leads to a deeper understanding of project goals and objectives. Identifying gaps between business and tech teams early prevents problems later. Transparency is essential during product delivery. Development status and blockers should be communicated to businesses and developers.
  5. Projects should be built around motivated individuals, giving them the tools and support they need to succeed.

    Principle 5 of Agile emphasizes the importance of selecting the right people to lead the project. As well as providing them with the resources and tools they need. This principle emphasizes trust, which means avoiding micromanagement. The Agile framework empowers team members through trust and autonomy.
  6. Face-to-face conversations can convey information efficiently and effectively within and to a development team.

    The sixth Agile principle focuses on communication and collaboration. Continuous communication is the best way for teams to work together. The principle emphasizes face-to-face communication. Face-to-face may not be the best way to connect, but meaningful connections and conversations are essential.
  7. Software that is working is the primary measure of progress.

    As mentioned, software development was often hierarchical and linear. Rather than working through iterations, teams left most testing and refactoring to the final round. There were many problems to review and improve, resulting in unhappy customers.

    An agile approach focuses on maintaining working software and measuring progress. Clients and tech teams review each feature. By the time we get to the next steps, the client will have already approved revisions and tested. An iteration is a working product, not the final product. Teams work on Minimum Viable Features. By delivering a working product that customers like, they measure success.
  8. A sustainable development strategy should be based on agile processes. It should be possible for sponsors, developers, and users to maintain a constant pace indefinitely.

    As part of this principle, project managers and leaders should set realistic and clear expectations, even if this means that a project will take longer than expected. Software development teams sometimes set high expectations when trying to meet all requirements quickly. In addition, putting in extra time to meet deadlines quickly burns out the team, affecting results, morale, and motivation.

    It is important to encourage a healthy work-life balance while setting realistic goals to enhance morale. Rather than finishing projects quickly, it is vital to make them consistently.
  9. The ability to be agile is enhanced by a continuous commitment to technical excellence and good design.

    The goal of this principle is to review the product after every iteration constantly. A key component of agile software development is continuous attention to technical excellence and high-quality design. As a result of this principle, teams are encouraged to avoid shortcuts simply because they want to finish a project faster. In most cases, shortcuts are more costly in the long run.
  10. To optimize efficiency, simplicity is essential.

    This Agile principle aims to keep processes as simple as possible. Thus, it emphasizes the importance of working smart, not hard. By recognizing what adds value and what doesn't, agile teams can maximize the resources that are best suited to their projects.

    A great deal of planning and features are avoided at all costs. Streamlining the cycle and avoiding distractions is the goal. Agile is all about simplifying and focusing on what matters most. Making difficult decisions should always be a priority for product managers.
  11. Self-organizing teams come up with the best architectures, requirements, and designs.

    A self-organizing team consists of a committed and motivated group that can plan, estimate, and complete the work autonomously while engaging with the customer. As a result, the traditional vertical management style is also broken down.

    An Agile principle emphasizes self-organizing teams under a more horizontal and flat management style. Because autonomous teams don't need permission for every decision they make, they can act faster.
  12. In order to become more effective, the team regularly reflects on how it can improve, then adjusts and tunes its behavior accordingly.

    The last Agile principle encourages leaders to evaluate what the team has accomplished, how they performed, and where they can improve. In agile development, products are improved continuously, taking feedback into account at all times. As with this process, teams should often evaluate their processes and find ways to improve them.

Beneficial aspects of Agile

Agile is the most popular approach used for project management. Though it was initially developed to be beneficial for software development, as time went by, it became the most sought-after approach for project management, irrespective of the industry. Agile is an iterative approach to project management that can help teams stay on top of things, considering the increasing and evolving nature and market demands.

Here are the key reasons why Agile is preferred for software development:

  1. Improved quality of the product: Agile is an iterative process. Teams continue to learn and evolve over time. This impacts the quality of the product. Throughout the process, the clients are involved, making it easy for feedback and changes to be made according to the client's requests. This helps develop an overall high-quality product that satisfies the client's needs.  
  2. Customer Satisfaction: Agile has proven to be a customer-satisfying framework as it involves the customer and their feedback from the beginning to the end of the software development. This encourages the customer to be involved in the project throughout all the phases, unlike other approaches that only entertain customers during the planning phase. This helps reduce the time by half for corrections and changes. One of the fundamental principles of Agile is that customer satisfaction is given the utmost priority.
  3. Promotes transparency: Agile helps in promoting transparency within the team during the development of the software. This helps build a rapport that encourages feedback and suggestions within the group. Continuous communication among the project's stakeholders is an advantage as it allows better control over the project's overall outcome.
  4. Allows change: Unlike other approaches in software development, Agile strives to work on changes continuously. The customers are involved throughout the project development phase. Agile promotes changes even at the very last stage of the project development. Change is a time-consuming and costly process for other project management methodologies compared to Agile.
  5. Enhanced project predictability: Agile promotes 360-degree product visibility throughout the software development phase. This helps in effectively mitigating plans that can be placed well in advance. By doing so, the future of the software is easily predicted. This helps in having an overview of the product's functioning and the possible problems that might occur in the future. Having the upper hand in predicting these risks can be very useful in understanding potential future challenges and having appropriate solutions to mitigate them.
  6. Speedy development process: The Agile methodology and the process of developing software through small sprints help dramatically increase the speed at which the product is completed. Since the workable size of the sprints is small, changes that are applied in the later development process can be easily implemented.
  7. Improves team morale: A team that follows the Agile methodology is self-organised and self-managing, promoting a healthy work culture. The cross-functional nature of the team helps the team grow and learn from new challenges and collaboration. It encourages a close-knit and flexible environment for the team to work harmoniously.
  8. Achieve relevant metrics: Compared to traditional methodologies, Agile emphasizes producing results, while the rest focus on closing the project according to the contract negotiated deadline and costs. Agile helps in making metrics that emphasize measuring the team's accomplishments. It focuses on understanding the bottleneck challenges that the team faces. By acknowledging these challenges,  the results of the data-driven decisions are measured to analyze and work on improvements.


Following the fundamental principles and values on which the Agile methodology was formed enables Product Development teams in organizations to successfully build software with enhanced quality and effectiveness in performance, not compromising on the key aspects. Over the years, Agile implementation in Project Management has proven beneficial and effective in providing a customer-satisfying product.

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